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on April 20, 2006 at 7:42:11 pm



1. 'Looking Through Gendered Lenses: Female Stereotyping in Advertisements and Gender Role Expectations" by : Sue Lafky, Margaret Duffy, Mary Steinmaus, and Dan Berkowitz


"This study applied cognitive heuristics theory to the study of gender role stereotyping. Seventy-five high school students viewed magazine advertisements with stereotypical images of women, whilfe fifty others viewed nonstereotypical images. Both groups then reponded to statements concerning a woman in a "neutral" photograph. Differences in gender role expectations were found for six of the twelve questionnare statments, although differences were not consistently related to either gender or experimental treatement. While the effects documented in this experiment were not dramatic, the results provide further evidence that even brief exposure to stereotypical advertisements plays a role in reinforcing stereotypes about gender roles and that what Sandra Bem has described as he lenses of gender lead to differences in ways males and femals cognitively process visual advertising images.(Valene Gresham)



2.Uray, Nimet. "an analysis of the portrayal of gender roles in advetisements.Jan, 2003. retrieved April 17th, 2006.


Uray in this article describes how manufacturers use gender and individuals to sell thier products.Acording to Uray "advertising stages a powerful social drama that transforms symbols and ideas and bonds together images of individuals and products (Leiss, Kline, & Jally, 1990)." she describes how such products are manufactured to create a gender base role and how it is thematically related to the individual. Advertisements are used to advocate the idea that gender roles are normal and is neccessary in society according to uray "Advertising is believed to reinforce the notion that gender roles are "proper," "best," or "natural" by reflecting certain narrowly defined roles " she counter argues that advertisements not only categorize women and men but it also creates stereotypes of certain groups that are naturually not true but is in fact degrading and offensive. (Amanda Sawyer)


3.Matlin, Margaret W. "Bimbos and Rambos: The Cognitive Basis of Gender Stereotypes." March, 2004. Retreived April 16th, 2006.

Matlin analyzes how the media contributes to gender stereotypes.Matlin points our thatif you glance through magazine advertisements, you'll notice that women are much more likely than men to serve a decorative function. Women recline in seductive clothing, caressing a liquor bottle, or they drape themselves coyly on the nearest male. They bend their bodies at a ludicrous angle, or they look as helpless as 6-year-olds. They also may be painfully thin. In contrast, men stand up, they look competent, and they look purposeful (Jones, 1991). In magazine advertisements, men are rarely portrayed doing housework. Instead, men are more likely than women to be shown working outside the home. The world of paid employment is not emphasized for women. For example, an analysis of the articles in Seventeen magazine demonstrated that only 7% of the contents concerned career planning, independence, and other self-development topics. In contrast, 46% of the contents concerned appearance (Peirce, 1990). In the magazine advertisements, men are rarely portrayed doing housework. Basically, the media world often represents men and women living in two different spheres.(Maggie Jones)

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