• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Stop wasting time looking for files and revisions. Connect your Gmail, DriveDropbox, and Slack accounts and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio will automatically organize all your file attachments. Learn more and claim your free account.



This version was saved 14 years, 7 months ago View current version     Page history
Saved by PBworks
on April 25, 2006 at 9:27:59 pm



1. Lafky, Sue; Duffy, Margaret; Steinmaus, Mary and Berkowitz, Dan. Looking Through Gendered Lenses: Female Stereotyping in Advertisements and Gender Role Expectations. Journalism Mass Communication Quarterly 96. 73, 2, 379-388.


This study applied cognitive heuristics theory to the study of gender role stereotyping. Seventy-five high school students viewed magazine advertisements with stereotypical images of women, whilfe fifty others viewed nonstereotypical images. Both groups then reponded to statements concerning a woman in a "neutral" photograph. Differences in gender role expectations were found for six of the twelve questionnare statments, although differences were not consistently related to either gender or experimental treatement. While the effects documented in this experiment were not dramatic, the results provide further evidence that even brief exposure to stereotypical advertisements plays a role in reinforcing stereotypes about gender roles and that what Sandra Bem has described as he lenses of gender lead to differences in ways males and femals cognitively process visual advertising images.(Valene Gresham)



2.Uray, Nimet.An Analysis of the Portrayal of Gender Roles in Advetisements.Jan, 2003. retrieved April 17th, 2006.


Uray in this article describes how manufacturers use gender and individuals to sell their products.According to Uray "advertising stages a powerful social drama that transforms symbols and ideas and bonds together images of individuals and products (Leiss, Kline, & Jally, 1990)." she describes how such products are manufactured to create a gender base role and how it is thematically related to the individual. Advertisements are used to advocate the idea that gender roles are normal and is neccessary in society according to uray "Advertising is believed to reinforce the notion that gender roles are "proper," "best," or "natural" by reflecting certain narrowly defined roles " she counter argues that advertisements not only categorize women and men but it also creates stereotypes of certain groups that are naturually not true but is in fact degrading and offensive. (Amanda Sawyer)


3.Matlin, Margaret W. "Bimbos and Rambos: The Cognitive Basis of Gender Stereotypes." March, 2004. Retreived April 16th, 2006.

Matlin analyzes how the media contributes to gender stereotypes.Matlin points our that if you glance through magazine advertisements, you'll notice that women are much more likely than men to serve a decorative function. Women recline in seductive clothing, caressing a liquor bottle, or they drape themselves coyly on the nearest male. They bend their bodies at a ludicrous angle, or they look as helpless as 6-year-olds. They also may be painfully thin. In contrast, men stand up, they look competent, and they look purposeful (Jones, 1991). In magazine advertisements, men are rarely portrayed doing housework. Instead, men are more likely than women to be shown working outside the home. The world of paid employment is not emphasized for women. For example, an analysis of the articles in Seventeen magazine demonstrated that only 7% of the contents concerned career planning, independence, and other self-development topics. In contrast, 46% of the contents concerned appearance (Peirce, 1990). In the magazine advertisements, men are rarely portrayed doing housework. Basically, the media world often represents men and women living in two different spheres.(Maggie Jones)


4. Shields, Vickie R.(2003). Measuring up: How advertising affects self-image. NWSA Journal, 15, 199-215.

In the study conducted by Shields, she actively attacks the theory that women are more affected by self-image after viewing advertisements than men are. To test the theory, Shields surveyed both men and women for the study. Unsuprisingly, the women were able to identify with the idea of being viewed as objects, as opposed to subjects in advertisements. Shields also noted that the impact of adverstisemnts had an even more striking affect on young girls, who often look to the ads when they lack self-confidence and are in search of how they should act or look as a young adult. This could also hold a negative effect on a young girl's overall body image, which could lead to eating disorders and other social issues that young adults experience. Shield's also offered different alternatives that young adults could indulge in besides looking to magazines or television to gain a sense of self. One the alternatives was to surround oneself around people that they feel most comfortable with, such as family and friends. This way, the young adult feels less pressure to engage in activity that they are not comfortable with. Shield's also made it a point to discuss how certain trends developed over the years and how young adults gravitated towards those changes. In all, Shield's study proved to be very insightful and helpful when it came to objectively discussing how prints ads can have an effect on the way young adults view gender roles. (Candice Whitfield)


5.Carpenter, C., Edison, Aimee. (2005) Taking it all off again: The portrayal of women in advertising over the past forty years. International Communication Association, 1-25.

Magazine advertisements from six publications in 2004 were analyzed and compared to an exact study done by Soley and Kurzbard in 1986 that assessed the use of sexual imagery in advertising. The researchers felt that it is important to examine how the portrayal of women in advertising has changed over the past decades. It was hypothesized that the headlines utilizing verbal sexual references would have increased over the past 40 years and that there would be an increase in explict sexual contact between the male and female models over the past decades. This enormous discrepancy in the level of dress between male and female models indicates that women are portrayed much more often as sexual objects than are men. This study will hopefully advance feminist scholarship through the thorough documentation of the trend of inequality in the portrayal of sexuality and gender roles of females in the past and today.

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.